This is a complete bibliography of works used to create The Species Maker, including all sources listed in the novel’s endnotes and links to primary sources that are freely available online.
The World’s Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee Evolution Case: A Word-for-word Report of the Famous Court Test of the Tennessee Anti-evolution Act, at Dayton, July 10 to 21, 1925, Including Speeches and Arguments of Attorneys, Testimony of Noted Scientists, and Bryan’s Last Speech (National Book Company, 1925). The transcripts are also available here.
Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nineteen Twenties. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1931.
Allen, Garland. The Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1978.
____. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.
Allen. W.E. “The Naturalist’s Place in His Community.” Science 50 (1919): 448–451.
Allerfeldt, Kristofer. Race, Radicalism, Religion and Restriction. New York/Westport CN: Praeger, 2003.
____. “‘And We Got Here First’: Albert Johnson, National Origins and Self-Interest in the Immigration Debate of the 1920s.” Journal of Contemporary History 45(2010): 7-26.
Altschuler, Glenn C. “From Religion to Ethics: Andrew D. White and the Dilemma of a Christian Rationalist.” Church History 47(1978): 308-324.
Alvord, Clarence Walworth. “Musings of an Inebriated Historian.” American Mercury 5(1925): 434-1. Available here.
Anon. “Analyzes Women and has 65 Species: No Mystery about them and he loves them all, Says W.L. George.” New York Times January 9, 1922.
Anon. “Arrest under Evolution Law.” Nashville Banner 6 May 1925.
Anon. “Biologist Supports Curb on Immigrants.” New York Times April 6, 1924.
Anon. “Bryan Raps Colleges for Lack of Religion: Names Columbia in group He Says Is Turning Out Infidels and Skeptics.” New York Times November 26, 1921
Anon. “Eugenics in the Colleges.” Journal of Heredity 5(1914): 186. Available here.
Anon. “John Roach Straton condemns evolution as degenerate cult.” Harvard Crimson (October 16, 1925). Available here.
Anon. “Letters to the Editor.” The Century 104(1922): 973.
Anon. “Science did not inspire Chicago murder, university records show.” The Science News-Letter 4(1924): 1-2.
Anon. “The Woman Institute Visitor, Then and Now.” The Washington Newspaper 5(1919): 19-22. Available here.
Armstrong-Jones, Robert and Charles Davies-Jones, “Forgetting: Psychological Repression.” The British Medical Journal 1(1920): 236-237. Available here.
Aveling, Edward. The Religious Views of Charles Darwin. Freethought Publishing Company, 1883. Available here.
Baker, Alonzo L. “The San Francisco Evolution Debates, June 13-14, 1925.” Adventist Heritage 2(1975): 23-31. Available here.
Banner, Lois W. Intertwined Lives: Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Their Circle. New York: Vintage, 2010.
Barkan, Elazar. “Reevaluating Progressive Eugenics: Herbert Spencer Jennings and the 1924 Immigration Legislation.” Journal of the History of Biology 24(1991): 91-112.
____. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Barker, Lewellys F. “On the understanding and practical management of nervous patients, particularly of the nervous woman.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 1(1925): 404-426. Available here.
“Bateson holds that former beliefs must be abandoned,” Toronto Globe December 29, 1921.
Bateson, William. “Evolutionary Faith and Modern Doubts.” Science 55(1922): 55-61.
Benson, Keith R. “Experimental Ecology on the Pacific Coast: Victor Shelford and His Search for Appropriate Methods.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14(1992): 73-91.
Bix, Amy Sue. “Experiences and Voices of Eugenics Field-Workers: Women’s Work in Biology.” Social Studies of Science 27(1997): 625-668.
Blee, Lisa. “Mount Rainier and Indian Economies of Place, 1850-1925.” Western Historical Quarterly 40(2009): 419-443.
Boag, Peter. Same-sex Affairs: Constructing and Controlling Homosexuality in the Pacific Northwest. University of California Press, 2003.
Boas, Franz. “Eugenics.” Scientific Monthly 3(1916): 471-478. Available here.
____. “Inventing a Great Race” in The New Republic 9(1917): 305-307. Available here.
Bohan, Chara Haeussler. Go to the Sources: Lucy Maynard Salmon and the Teaching of History. New York: P. Lang, 2004.
Bork, Kennard Baker. Cracking Rocks and Defending Democracy: Kirtley Fletcher Mather, Scientist, Teacher and Social Activist. San Francisco: Pacific Division AAAS, 1994.
Botham, Fay. Almighty God Created the Races: Christianity, Interracial Marriage, & American Law. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Bowler, Peter J. The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades around 1900. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
____. Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001.
Boxberger, Daniel L. “In and Out of the Labor Force: The Lummi Indians and the Development of the Commercial Salmon Fishery of North Puget Sound, 1880-1900.” Ethnohistory 35:(1988): 161-190.
Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Historical Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Broussard, Antoinette. “Nettie Craig Asberry: A Pillar of Tacoma’s African American Community.” Columbia 19(2005): 3-6.
Bryan, William Jennings. “God and Evolution: Charge that American Teachers of Darwinism ‘Make the Bible a Scrap of Paper,’” New York Times, February 26, 1922.
____. In His Image. New York: Fleming H. Regell Company, 1922. Available here.
____. “The Fundamentals.” The Forum 70(1923): 1675-1680.
____. “Text of Bryan’s Evolution Speech, written for the Scopes Trial: In Undelivered Argument the Commoner Declared That Only Christianity Could Solve the Problems That Vex the Heart and Perplex the World.” New York Times, July 29, 1925.
Buchanan, Charles M. “Rights of the Puget Sound Indians to Game and Fish.” Washington Historical Quarterly 6(1915): 109-118. Available here.
American Association for the Advancement of Science’s resolution opposing anti-evolution laws is reprinted in the Bulletin of the Association of University Professors (1922) pp. 6-7. Available here.
Burkhardt, Frederick and Sydney Smith, eds. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: Volume 4 1847-1850. Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Cardiff, Ira D. “Evolution and the Bible.” Science 62(1925): 111. Available here.
Castle, William. Genetics and Eugenics: A Text-book for Students of Biology and a Reference Book for Animal and Plant Breeder. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1924. Available here.
Chambers, Robert. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. London: Churchill, 1844. Available here.
Chapman, Edward Mortimer. A Modernist and his Creed. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1926. Available here.
Clark, Constance Areson. God – or Gorilla: Images of Evolution in the Jazz Age. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.
Clark, Norman H. The Dry Years: Prohibition and Social Change in Washington. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965.
Clifford, Geraldine Jonçich ed., Lone Voyagers: Academic Women in Coeducational Institutions, 1870-1937. New York: The Feminist Press, 1989.
Cobbe, Frances Power. Darwinism in Morals and other Essays. London: Williams and Norgate, 1872. Available here
College of Puget Sound Bulletin, Catalog Edition, Vol XVI. April 1924, No. 2. Tacoma, Washington. Available here.
Collins, Cary C. “A Future with a Past: Hazel Pete, Cultural Identity, and the Federal Indian Education System.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 92(2000/2001): 15-28.
Collins, Cary C. ed. “Hard Lessons in America: Henry Sicade’s History of Puyallup Indian School, 1860-1920.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History 14(2000-2001).
Comstock, Anna. Handbook of Nature Study. Cornell, NY: Comstock Publication Associates, 1911. Available here.
____. The Comstocks of Cornell: John Henry Comstock and Anna Botsford Comstock. Cornell, NY: Comstock Publication Associates, 1953.
Conkin, Paul K. When All the Gods Trembled: Darwinism, Scopes and American Intellectuals. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield, 2001.
Conklin, Edwin G. Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men 2nd edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1920. Available here
____. “Bryan and Evolution Why His Statements Are Erroneous and Misleading –Theology Amusing If Not Pathetic.” New York Times for March 5, 1922.
Cooke, Kathy J. “Duty or Dream? Edwin G. Conklin’s Critique of Eugenics and Support for American Individualism.” Journal of the History of Biology 35(2002): 365-384.
The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, Monday, July 13, 1925.
Cravens, Hamilton. The Triumph of Evolution: American Scientists and the Heredity-Environment Controversy, 1900-1941. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978.
Crombie, A.C. Medieval and Early Modern Science: Volume I. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1959.
Crook, Paul. Darwinism, War and History: The Debate over the Biology of War from the ‘Origin of Species’ to the First World War. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Daily Observer (Charlotte, North Carolina), February 24, 1925.
Daily, David W. Battle for the BIA: G.E.E. Lindquist and the Missionary Crusade against John Collier. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2004.
Darrow, Clarence and Will Durant. Debate: Is Man a Machine?: Clarence Darrow, Affirmative; Dr. Will Durant, Negative. New York: League for Public Discussion, 1927.
Darwin, Charles. Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of HMS “Beagle” Round the World, Under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy. London: Ward, Lock and Company, 1889. Available here.
____. The Descent of Man. 2nd edition, London: John Murray, 1874. Available here.
____. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, the Preservation of the Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life 6th edition. London: J. Murray, 1876. Available here.
Davenport, Charles. Eugenics: The Science of Human Improvement by Better Breeding. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1910. Available here.
____. Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1911. Available here.
Davis, Edward B. “Science and Religious Fundamentalism in the 1920s: Pamphlets from the Scopes Era Provide Insight into Debates about Science and Religion.” American Scientist 93(2005): 253-260.
Day, Matthew. “Godless Savages and Superstitious Dogs: Charles Darwin, Imperial Ethnography, and the Problem of Human Uniqueness.” Journal of the History of Ideas 6(2008): 49-70.
Deichmann, Elisabeth. “Elizabeth Bangs Bryant.” Psyche, 65(1958): 3-10.
Desmond, Adrian and James Moore Darwin’s Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin’s Views on Human Evolution. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009.
Dicker, Lea Stickley. “The Tribe that wouldn’t Die.” Seattle Met, March 2009
Dietrich, Michael R. and Brandi H. Tambasco’s “Beyond the Boss and the Boys: Women and the Division of Labor in Drosophila Genetics in the United States, 1934–1970.” Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2007): 509-528.
Door, Gregory Michael. “Assuring America’s Place in the Sun: Ivey Foreman Lewis and the Teaching of Eugenics at the University of Virginia, 1915-1953.” The Journal of Southern History 66(2000): 257-296.
Dover, Harriette Shelton. Tulalip: From My Heart: An Autobiographical Account of a Reservation Community. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.
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Duke, David C. “Anna Louise Strong and the Search for a Good Cause.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 66(1975): 123-137.
East, Edward. Mankind at the Crossroads. New York and London: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923. Available here.
Edwards, Katharine. “Married Women’s Right to Work: ‘Anti-Nepotism’ Policies at the University of Washington in the Depression.” at The Great Depression in Washington State Project. Available here.
Ellis, Havelock “Sexual Education and Nakedness.” The American Journal of Psychology 20(1909): 297-317. Available here).
____. Little Essays of Love and Virtue. London: A.&C. Black Ltd., 1922. Available here.
Elton, Charles. Animal Ecology. London: Sidgwick and London, 1927.
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____. Finding the Order in Nature: The Naturalist Tradition from Linnaeus to E.O. Wilson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
____. Mixing Races: From Scientific Racism to Modern Evolutionary Ideas. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Farrell, Patrick. “The Campus Kaiser: Henry Suzzallo, Militarism, the University of Washington and Labor Politics from 1915-1920,” The Great Depression in Washington State Project. Available here.
Findlay, John M. “Brides, Brains, and Partisan Politics: Edmond S. Meany, the University of Washington, and State Government, 1889-1939.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 99(2008): 181-93.
Finocchiaro, Maurice. The Trial of Galileo: Essential Documents. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing, 2014.
Fosdick, Harry Emerson. “Evolution and Mr. Bryan.” New York Times, March 12, 1922. Available here.
____. “Shall the Fundamentalists Win?” Christian Work 102(1922): 716-72. Available here.
Fry, Kathleen Whalen. “Transforming the Tidelands; Japanese Labor in Washington’s Oystering Communities before 1942.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 102(2001): 132-143.
Galton, Francis “Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope, and Aims.” American Journal of Sociology 10(1905). Available here.
Garfield, Viola E. and Pamela T. Amoss, “Erna Gunther (1896-1982).” American Anthropologist 86 (1984): 394-399.
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Glass, Bentley. “Geneticists Embattled: Their Stand Against Rampant Eugenics and Racism in America During the 1920s and 1930s.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 180(1986): 130-154.
Gosney, E.S. and Paul Popenoe’s Sterilization for Human Betterment: A Summary of Results of 6,000 Operations in California, 1909-1929. New York: MacMillan, 1931. Available here.
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Guberlet, Muriel. The Windows to his World: The Story of Trevor Kincaid. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books Pub., 1975.
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____. Adolescence: its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1915. Available here.
Hamlin, Kimberly. From Eve to Evolution: Darwin, Science, and Women’s Rights in Gilded Age America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.
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____. Indians in the Making: Ethnic Relations and Indian Identities around Puget Sound. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2000.
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____. Fighting the Insects: The Story of an Entomologist. New York: Macmillan, 1933.
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