This is a complete bibliography of works used to create The Species Maker, including all sources listed in the novel’s endnotes and links to primary sources that are freely available online.

The World’s Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee Evolution Case: A Word-for-word Report of the Famous Court Test of the Tennessee Anti-evolution Act, at Dayton, July 10 to 21, 1925, Including Speeches and Arguments of Attorneys, Testimony of Noted Scientists, and Bryan’s Last Speech (National Book Company, 1925). The transcripts are also available here.

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nineteen Twenties. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1931.

Allen, Garland. The Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1978.

____. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Allen. W.E. “The Naturalist’s Place in His Community.” Science 50 (1919): 448–451.

Allerfeldt, Kristofer. Race, Radicalism, Religion and Restriction. New York/Westport CN: Praeger, 2003.

____. “‘And We Got Here First’: Albert Johnson, National Origins and Self-Interest in the Immigration Debate of the 1920s.” Journal of Contemporary History 45(2010): 7-26.

Altschuler, Glenn C. “From Religion to Ethics: Andrew D. White and the Dilemma of a Christian Rationalist.” Church History 47(1978): 308-324.

Alvord, Clarence Walworth. “Musings of an Inebriated Historian.” American Mercury 5(1925): 434-1. Available here.

Anon. “Analyzes Women and has 65 Species: No Mystery about them and he loves them all, Says W.L. George.” New York Times January 9, 1922.

Anon. “Arrest under Evolution Law.” Nashville Banner 6 May 1925.

Anon. “Biologist Supports Curb on Immigrants.” New York Times April 6, 1924.

Anon. “Bryan Raps Colleges for Lack of Religion: Names Columbia in group He Says Is Turning Out Infidels and Skeptics.” New York Times November 26, 1921

Anon. “Eugenics in the Colleges.” Journal of Heredity 5(1914): 186. Available here.

Anon. “John Roach Straton condemns evolution as degenerate cult.” Harvard Crimson (October 16, 1925). Available here.

Anon. “Letters to the Editor.” The Century 104(1922): 973.

Anon. “Science did not inspire Chicago murder, university records show.” The Science News-Letter 4(1924): 1-2.

Anon. “The Woman Institute Visitor, Then and Now.” The Washington Newspaper 5(1919): 19-22. Available here.

Armstrong-Jones, Robert and Charles Davies-Jones, “Forgetting: Psychological Repression.” The British Medical Journal 1(1920): 236-237. Available here.

Aveling, Edward. The Religious Views of Charles Darwin. Freethought Publishing Company, 1883. Available here.

Baker, Alonzo L. “The San Francisco Evolution Debates, June 13-14, 1925.” Adventist Heritage 2(1975): 23-31. Available here.

Banner, Lois W. Intertwined Lives: Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and Their Circle. New York: Vintage, 2010.

Barkan, Elazar. “Reevaluating Progressive Eugenics: Herbert Spencer Jennings and the 1924 Immigration Legislation.” Journal of the History of Biology 24(1991): 91-112.

____. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Barker, Lewellys F. “On the understanding and practical management of nervous patients, particularly of the nervous woman.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 1(1925): 404-426. Available here.

“Bateson holds that former beliefs must be abandoned,” Toronto Globe December 29, 1921.

Bateson, William. “Evolutionary Faith and Modern Doubts.” Science 55(1922): 55-61.

Benson, Keith R. “Experimental Ecology on the Pacific Coast: Victor Shelford and His Search for Appropriate Methods.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 14(1992): 73-91.

Bix, Amy Sue. “Experiences and Voices of Eugenics Field-Workers: Women’s Work in Biology.” Social Studies of Science 27(1997): 625-668.

Blee, Lisa. “Mount Rainier and Indian Economies of Place, 1850-1925.” Western Historical Quarterly 40(2009): 419-443.

Boag, Peter. Same-sex Affairs: Constructing and Controlling Homosexuality in the Pacific Northwest. University of California Press, 2003.

Boas, Franz. “Eugenics.” Scientific Monthly 3(1916): 471-478. Available here.

____. “Inventing a Great Race” in The New Republic 9(1917): 305-307. Available here.

Bohan, Chara Haeussler. Go to the Sources: Lucy Maynard Salmon and the Teaching of History. New York: P. Lang, 2004.

Bork, Kennard Baker. Cracking Rocks and Defending Democracy: Kirtley Fletcher Mather, Scientist, Teacher and Social Activist. San Francisco: Pacific Division AAAS, 1994.

Botham, Fay. Almighty God Created the Races: Christianity, Interracial Marriage, & American Law. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Bowler, Peter J. The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades around 1900. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

____. Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early Twentieth-Century Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001.

Boxberger, Daniel L. “In and Out of the Labor Force: The Lummi Indians and the Development of the Commercial Salmon Fishery of North Puget Sound, 1880-1900.” Ethnohistory 35:(1988): 161-190.

Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Historical Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Broussard, Antoinette. “Nettie Craig Asberry: A Pillar of Tacoma’s African American Community.” Columbia 19(2005): 3-6.

Bryan, William Jennings. “God and Evolution: Charge that American Teachers of Darwinism ‘Make the Bible a Scrap of Paper,’” New York Times, February 26, 1922.

____. In His Image. New York: Fleming H. Regell Company, 1922. Available here.

____. “The Fundamentals.” The Forum 70(1923): 1675-1680.

____. “Text of Bryan’s Evolution Speech, written for the Scopes Trial: In Undelivered Argument the Commoner Declared That Only Christianity Could Solve the Problems That Vex the Heart and Perplex the World.” New York Times, July 29, 1925.

Buchanan, Charles M. “Rights of the Puget Sound Indians to Game and Fish.” Washington Historical Quarterly 6(1915): 109-118. Available here.

American Association for the Advancement of Science’s resolution opposing anti-evolution laws is reprinted in the Bulletin of the Association of University Professors (1922) pp. 6-7. Available here.

Burkhardt, Frederick and Sydney Smith, eds. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: Volume 4 1847-1850. Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Cardiff, Ira D. “Evolution and the Bible.” Science 62(1925): 111. Available here.

Castle, William. Genetics and Eugenics: A Text-book for Students of Biology and a Reference Book for Animal and Plant Breeder. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1924. Available here.

Chambers, Robert. Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. London: Churchill, 1844. Available here.

Chapman, Edward Mortimer. A Modernist and his Creed. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1926. Available here.

Clark, Constance Areson. God – or Gorilla: Images of Evolution in the Jazz Age. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

Clark, Norman H. The Dry Years: Prohibition and Social Change in Washington. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965.

Clifford, Geraldine Jonçich ed., Lone Voyagers: Academic Women in Coeducational Institutions, 1870-1937. New York: The Feminist Press, 1989.

Cobbe, Frances Power. Darwinism in Morals and other Essays. London: Williams and Norgate, 1872. Available here

College of Puget Sound Bulletin, Catalog Edition, Vol XVI. April 1924, No. 2. Tacoma, Washington. Available here.

Collins, Cary C. “A Future with a Past: Hazel Pete, Cultural Identity, and the Federal Indian Education System.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 92(2000/2001): 15-28.

Collins, Cary C. ed. “Hard Lessons in America: Henry Sicade’s History of Puyallup Indian School, 1860-1920.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History 14(2000-2001).

Comstock, Anna. Handbook of Nature Study. Cornell, NY: Comstock Publication Associates, 1911. Available here.

____. The Comstocks of Cornell: John Henry Comstock and Anna Botsford Comstock. Cornell, NY: Comstock Publication Associates, 1953.

Conkin, Paul K. When All the Gods Trembled: Darwinism, Scopes and American Intellectuals. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield, 2001.

Conklin, Edwin G. Heredity and Environment in the Development of Men 2nd edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1920. Available here

____. “Bryan and Evolution Why His Statements Are Erroneous and Misleading –Theology Amusing If Not Pathetic.” New York Times for March 5, 1922.

Cooke, Kathy J. “Duty or Dream? Edwin G. Conklin’s Critique of Eugenics and Support for American Individualism.” Journal of the History of Biology 35(2002): 365-384.

The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, Monday, July 13, 1925.

Cravens, Hamilton. The Triumph of Evolution: American Scientists and the Heredity-Environment Controversy, 1900-1941. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978.

Crombie, A.C. Medieval and Early Modern Science: Volume I. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1959.

Crook, Paul. Darwinism, War and History: The Debate over the Biology of War from the ‘Origin of Species’ to the First World War. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Daily Observer (Charlotte, North Carolina), February 24, 1925.

Daily, David W. Battle for the BIA: G.E.E. Lindquist and the Missionary Crusade against John Collier. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2004.

Darrow, Clarence and Will Durant. Debate: Is Man a Machine?: Clarence Darrow, Affirmative; Dr. Will Durant, Negative. New York: League for Public Discussion, 1927.

Darwin, Charles. Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of HMS “Beagle” Round the World, Under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy. London: Ward, Lock and Company, 1889. Available here.

____. The Descent of Man. 2nd edition, London: John Murray, 1874. Available here.

____. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, the Preservation of the Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life 6th edition. London: J. Murray, 1876. Available here.

Davenport, Charles. Eugenics: The Science of Human Improvement by Better Breeding. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1910. Available here.

____. Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1911. Available here.

Davis, Edward B. “Science and Religious Fundamentalism in the 1920s: Pamphlets from the Scopes Era Provide Insight into Debates about Science and Religion.” American Scientist 93(2005): 253-260.

Day, Matthew. “Godless Savages and Superstitious Dogs: Charles Darwin, Imperial Ethnography, and the Problem of Human Uniqueness.” Journal of the History of Ideas 6(2008): 49-70.

Deichmann, Elisabeth. “Elizabeth Bangs Bryant.” Psyche, 65(1958): 3-10.

Desmond, Adrian and James Moore Darwin’s Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin’s Views on Human Evolution. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009.

Dicker, Lea Stickley. “The Tribe that wouldn’t Die.” Seattle Met, March 2009

Dietrich, Michael R. and Brandi H. Tambasco’s “Beyond the Boss and the Boys: Women and the Division of Labor in Drosophila Genetics in the United States, 1934–1970.” Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2007): 509-528.

Door, Gregory Michael. “Assuring America’s Place in the Sun: Ivey Foreman Lewis and the Teaching of Eugenics at the University of Virginia, 1915-1953.” The Journal of Southern History 66(2000): 257-296.

Dover, Harriette Shelton. Tulalip: From My Heart: An Autobiographical Account of a Reservation Community. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

Downes, Randolph C. “A Crusade for Indian Reform 1922-1934.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 32(1945): 331-354.

Duke, David C. “Anna Louise Strong and the Search for a Good Cause.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 66(1975): 123-137.

East, Edward. Mankind at the Crossroads. New York and London: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923. Available here.

Edwards, Katharine. “Married Women’s Right to Work: ‘Anti-Nepotism’ Policies at the University of Washington in the Depression.” at The Great Depression in Washington State Project. Available here.

Ellis, Havelock “Sexual Education and Nakedness.” The American Journal of Psychology 20(1909): 297-317. Available here).

____. Little Essays of Love and Virtue. London: A.&C. Black Ltd., 1922. Available here.

Elton, Charles. Animal Ecology. London: Sidgwick and London, 1927.

Fangerau, Heiner. “From Mephistopheles to Isaiah: Jacques Loeb, Technical Biology and War.” Social Studies of Science 39(2009): 229-256.

Farber, Paul Lawrence. The Temptations of Evolutionary Ethics. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994.

____. Finding the Order in Nature: The Naturalist Tradition from Linnaeus to E.O. Wilson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

____. Mixing Races: From Scientific Racism to Modern Evolutionary Ideas. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.

Farrell, Patrick.The Campus Kaiser: Henry Suzzallo, Militarism, the University of Washington and Labor Politics from 1915-1920,” The Great Depression in Washington State Project. Available here.

Findlay, John M. “Brides, Brains, and Partisan Politics: Edmond S. Meany, the University of Washington, and State Government, 1889-1939.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 99(2008): 181-93.

Finocchiaro, Maurice. The Trial of Galileo: Essential Documents. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing, 2014.

Fosdick, Harry Emerson. “Evolution and Mr. Bryan.” New York Times, March 12, 1922. Available here.

____. “Shall the Fundamentalists Win?” Christian Work 102(1922): 716-72. Available here.

Fry, Kathleen Whalen. “Transforming the Tidelands; Japanese Labor in Washington’s Oystering Communities before 1942.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 102(2001): 132-143.

Galton, Francis “Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope, and Aims.” American Journal of Sociology 10(1905). Available here.

Garfield, Viola E. and Pamela T. Amoss, “Erna Gunther (1896-1982).” American Anthropologist 86 (1984): 394-399.

Geddes, Patrick and J. Arthur Thompson’s The Evolution of Sex. London: Walter Scott 1899. Available here.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. “Do Women Dress to Please Men” The Century Magazine 103(1922): 651-659. Available here.

Glass, Bentley. “Geneticists Embattled: Their Stand Against Rampant Eugenics and Racism in America During the 1920s and 1930s.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 180(1986): 130-154.

Gosney, E.S. and Paul Popenoe’s Sterilization for Human Betterment: A Summary of Results of 6,000 Operations in California, 1909-1929. New York: MacMillan, 1931. Available here.

Gould, Carol Grant. The Remarkable Life of William Beebe: Explorer and Naturalist. Washington DC: Island Press, 2004.

Gould, Stephen Jay. “Nonmoral Nature.” Natural History 91(1982): 19-26.

____. “Kropotkin was no Crackpot.” Natural History 97(1988): 12-21.

Greene, John. “Darwin as a Social Evolutionist.” Journal of the History of Biology 10(1977): 1-27.

Guberlet, Muriel. The Windows to his World: The Story of Trevor Kincaid. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books Pub., 1975.

Guerlac, Henry. “George Lincoln Burr.” Isis 35(1944): 147-152.

Gulick, Addison. Evolutionist and Missionary, John Thomas Gulick: Portrayed through Documents and Discussion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932.

Gunther, Albert Edward. A Century of Zoology through the Lives of Two Keepers, 1815-1914. London: Dawsons, 1975.

Hall, G. Stanley. “Eugenics: its Ideals and What it is Going to Do.” Religious Education 6(1911): 152-159. Available here.

____. Adolescence: its Psychology and its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1915. Available here.

Hamlin, Kimberly. From Eve to Evolution: Darwin, Science, and Women’s Rights in Gilded Age America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Hanford, Cornelius. Seattle and Environs. Seattle: Pioneer Historical Publications, 1924. Available here.

Hankins, Frank Hamilton. “New Books on God, Immortality and Religious Origins.” The Journal of Social Forces 3(1925):747-756.

Harmon, Alexandra. “Lines in Sand: Shifting Boundaries between Indians and non-Indians in the Puget Sound Region.” The Western Historical Quarterly 26(1995): 429-453.

____. Indians in the Making: Ethnic Relations and Indian Identities around Puget Sound. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2000.

Harris, Cyril. The Religion of Undergraduates. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1925.

Harrison, Ross G. “Science and Practice of Science.” Science 40(1914): 571-581.

Haskins, Frank Hamilton, “Herbert Spencer Jennings’ Prometheus.” in Social Forces 4(1926): 631-630.

Hendrik Willem Van Loon’s “Our Nordic Myth-Makers.” The Nation 120 (1925): 349–350

Henson, Pamela M. “The Comstock Research School in Evolutionary Entomology.” Osiris 8 (1993): 159-177.

____. “Invading Arcadia: Women Scientists in the Field in Latin America, 1900-1950.” The Americas 58(2002): 577-600.

Hobson, Richmond Pearson. Alcohol and the Human Race. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1920.

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Horsley, Victor and Mary. D. Sturge’s Alcohol and the Human Body. London: MacMillan, 1907.

Howard, L.O. “(a) On Some Presidential Addresses: (b) The War against the Insects.” Science 54 (1921): 641-51.

____. Fighting the Insects: The Story of an Entomologist. New York: Macmillan, 1933.

Hunter, George William. A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems. Cincinnati: American Book Company, 1914. Available here.

Huxley, Julian. “Searching for the Elixir of Life.” The Century Magazine 103(1922): 621-629.

Huxley, Leonard ed., Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, Volume I. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1901. Available here.

Huxley, Thomas Henry. Evolution and Ethics: and Other Essays. London: MacMillan, 1894. Available here.

Ingersoll, Robert. The Gods: And Other Lectures. New York: CP Farrell, 1889. Available here.

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Irwin, Will. The Next War: An Appeal to Common Sense. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1921. Available here.

Jackson, Robert T. “Samuel Henshaw.” Science 93(1941): 342-343.

Jagodinsky, Katrina. Legal Codes and Talking Trees: Indigenous Women’s Sovereignty in the Sonoran and Puget Sound Borderlands 1854-1946. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016.

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Johnson, Kristin. “Natural History as Stamp Collecting: A Brief History.” Archives of Natural History 34(2007): 244-258.

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____. “Furnishing the Skill Which Can Save the Child: Diphtheria, Germ Theory, and Theodicy.” Zygon 52(2017): 296-322.

Johnson, Russell L. “’Disease Is Unrhythmical’: Jazz, Health, and Disability in 1920s America.” Health and History 13(2011): 13-42.

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____. The Care and Culture of Men. San Francisco, CA: Whitaker and Ray-Wiggin, 1910.

____. The Heredity of Richard Roe: A Discussion of the Principles of Eugenics. Boston, MA: American Unitarian Association, 1911. Available here.

____. War and the Breed: The Relation of War to the Downfall of Nations. Boston: Beacon Press, 1915. Available here.

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Jordan, Karl. “The President’s Address, 1929.” Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 4(1930): 128-141.

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____. “In Memory of Lord Rothschild.” Novitates Zoologicae 41(1938): 1-41.

Kellicott, William The Social Direction of Human Evolution. New York and London: D. Appleton and Company, 1911. Available here.

Kellogg, Vernon. Beyond War: A Chapter in the Natural History of Man. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1912. Available here.

____. Headquarters Nights: A Record of Conversations and Experiences at the Headquarters of the German Army in France and Belgium. Boston: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1917.  Available here.

Kevles, Daniel. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Key, Wilhelmine. Heredity and Social Fitness: A Study of Differential Mating in a Pennsylvania Family. Washington DC: Carnegie Institution, 1920. Available here.

Kirby, W.F. “An Entomologist’s Jubilee.” The Entomologist 26(1893): 233-235.

Klyce, Scudder. The Sins of Science. Boston: Marshall Jones Co., 1925. Available here.

Kohler, Robert E. Landscapes and Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border in Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

____. All Creatures: Naturalists, Collectors, and Biodiversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Kohn, David. “Darwin’s Ambiguity: The Secularization of Biological Meaning.” The British Journal for the History of Science 22 (1989): 215-239.

Kropotkin, Peter. Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution. New York: McClure Phillips & Co., 1902. Available here.

LaGrand, James B. “The Changing ‘Jesus Road’: Protestants Reappraise American Indian Missions in the 1920s and 1930s.” Western Historical Quarterly 27(1996): 479-504.

Langdon-Davies, John. The New Age of Faith. New York: Viking Press, 1925.

Largent, Mark. Breeding Contempt: The History of Coerced Sterilization in the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011.

Larson, Edward. Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America’s Continuing Debate over Science and Religion. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Legg, James. Eugenic Sterilization. College of Puget Sound, 1947.

Lienesch, Michael. “Abandoning Evolution: The Forgotten History of Antievolution Activism and the Transformation of American Social Science.” Isis 103(2012): 687-709.

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Livingston, David N. Darwin’s Forgotten Defenders: The Encounter between Evangelical Theology and Evolutionary Thought. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1987.

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Ludmerer, Kenneth. Genetics, Eugenics, and the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 46(1972): 59-81.

Maienschein, Jane. Transforming Traditions in American Biology, 1880–1915. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

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Marsden, George. “Fundamentalism as an American Phenomenon, a Comparison with English Evangelicalism.” Church History 46 (1977): 215-232.

Martin, T.T. “Three Fatal Teachings of President Poteat of Wake Forest College.” Western Recorder (February 5, 1920): 4-5.

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Mather, Kirtley Fletcher. Science in Search of God. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1928.

Mathews, Shailer ed., Contributions of Science to Religion. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1924. Available here.

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McCann, Alfred Watterson. God – or Gorilla: How the Monkey Theory of Evolution Exposes its Own Methods, Refutes its Own Principles, Denies its Own Inferences Disproves its Own Case. New York: The Devin-Adair Company, 1922. Available here.

McClintock, Thomas C. “J. Allen Smith, a Pacific Northwest Progressive.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 53, no. 2 (1962): 49-59.

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McMahon, Theresa. Women and Economic Evolution: Or, The Effects of Industrial Changes Upon the Status of Women. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 1912.

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Miyamoto, S. Frank. “The Japanese Minority in the Pacific Northwest.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 54(1963): 143-149.

Mole, Rich. Rum-Runners and Renegades, Whiskey Wars of the Pacific Northwest, 1917-2012. Victoria, Canada: Heritage House Publishing Company, 2013.

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Murray, Keith A. “The Charles Niederhauser Case: Patriotism in the Seattle Schools, 1919.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 74(1983): 11-17.

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